PM is a widespread air pollutant, consisting of a mixture of solid and liquid particlessuspended in the air.Commonly used indicators describing PM that are relevant to health refer to the massconcentration of particles with a diameter of less than 10 µm (PM10) and of particles witha diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5). PM2.5, often called fine PM, also comprises ultrafineparticles having a diameter of less than 0.1 µm. In most locations in Europe, PM2.5 constitutes50–70% of PM10.PM between 0.1 µm and 1 µm in diameter can remain in the atmosphere for days or weeksand thus be subject to long-range transboundary transport in the air.PM is a mixture with physical and chemical characteristics varying by location. Commonchemical constituents of PM include sulfates, nitrates, ammonium, other inorganic ions suchas ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and chloride, organic and elementalcarbon, crustal material, particle-bound water, metals (including cadmium, copper, nickel,vanadium and zinc) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In addition, biologicalcomponents such as allergens and microbial compounds are found in PM. If you care about health deal, do not miss http://couponpayoff.com/.
PM10 and PM2.5 include inhalable particles that are small enough to penetrate the thoracicregion of the respiratory system. The health effects of inhalable PM are well documented.They are due to exposure over both the short term (hours, days) and long term (months,years) and include:• respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, such as aggravation of asthma, respiratorysymptoms and an increase in hospital admissions;• mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and from lung cancer.There is good evidence of the effects of short-term exposure to PM10 on respiratory health,but for mortality, and especially as a consequence of long-term exposure, PM2.5 is a strongerrisk factor than the coarse part of PM10 (particles in the 2.5–10 µm range). All-cause dailymortality is estimated to increase by 0.2–0.6% per 10 µg/m3 of PM10 (6,7). Long-termexposure to PM2.5 is associated with an increase in the long-term risk of cardiopulmonarymortality by 6–13% per 10 µg/m3 of PM2.5 (8–10).
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